A giant cantilever crane looms over a car park adjacent to the Hilton Garden Inn at Glasgow City. During its heydays, this crane used to load cargo and steam locomotives onto waiting ships to be exported around the world. The crane is no longer operational, yet its arm still bears the name of its former owners—Clydeport.
Known as the Finnieston Crane, it is one of only four such cranes still standing on the River Clyde, upon which Glasgow is built. They are the cherished symbols of the city's engineering heritage.
Shipbuilding was once a huge industry in Scotland, and the heart of this industry was situated on the banks of River Clyde. Within a short stretch of about thirty kilometers along the Clyde, dozens of different shipbuilding yards operated employing tens of thousands of workers who made some of the world’s fastest, biggest and most beautiful ships. In the early 1900s, one out of every five shipslaunched was built on the River Clyde. Shipbuilding was the pride of Scotland, and the envy of the world.
The first boats were built on the Clyde probably as early as the 15th century, but it wasn’t until the Industrial Revolution had begun that shipbuilding became a real source of commerce for Glasgow. Back then, conditions on River Clyde were not exactly conducive to shipbuilding. It was wide and shallow, and at places the depth was as little as two feet at low tide. This hampered Glasgow's ambitions to become a port, which prompted the City Council to buy land closer to the sea and build their own port. This town became Port Glasgow, and for a while it was the main customs port for the Clyde.
In the late 18th century, a number of extensive river engineering projects were undertaken to dredge and deepen River Clyde as far as Glasgow. As soon as this work was completed, a number of shipbuilding companies rapidly establishing themselves on the river. Soon, the Clyde gained a reputation for being the best location for shipbuilding in the British Empire, and grew to become the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding center. Clydebuilt became an industry benchmark of quality, and the river's shipyards were given contracts for prestigious ocean-going liners, as well as warships, including the Queen Mary and the Queen Elizabeth 2— the largest passenger liner of the time.
At the Fairfield yard in Govan, the largest crane in the world, with a maximum lift capacity of 250 tons, was erected in 1911, and by the following year, Fairfield had 12 ships under construction at the same time. During the two World Wars, the shipbuilders of the Clyde became the leading suppliers of the Royal Navy.
The 150-foot-high Titan crane at Clydebank, was also the world's first electrically powered cantilever crane, and the largest crane of its type at the time of its completion.
Clyde’s downfall as a major industrial center came during and after World War II. The shipyards suffered heavy damages by enemy bombing, and immediately after the war the number of orders fell drastically. Glasgow’s shipyards were also forced to compete with a number of emerging ship building nations as the heart of the industry shifted to Asia. By the mid-1960s, shipbuilding on the Clyde was becoming increasingly uneconomical and by the 1970s, it was practically over.
Only a handful of shipyards remain in operation on the Clyde today. Two of these are major shipyards owned by a naval defense contractor where technologically advanced warships are constructed for the Royal Navy and other navies around the world. Another is operated by the Clyde Port Authority, while the privately owned Ferguson Shipbuilders at Port Glasgow is the last survivor of the many shipyards that once dominated Port Glasgow and Greenock.
Stobcross Quay and the Finnieston Crane in 1957.
Queen Elizabeth launch on the river Clyde, pulled by tug The Flying Eagle in 1938. Photo credit: Glasgow Live
The Port Caroline ship being built at Stephen's of Linthouse yard on the Clyde in 1968. Photo credit: Glasgow Live
Photo credit: University of Glasgow Library
The River Clyde in the early 1900s. Photo credit: Glasgow Live
On the coast of Kahoʻolawe, the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands of Hawaiian, is a large crater left behind by a violent test conducted by the US Navy in 1965. Back then, starting from the beginning of World War 2 until the 1990s, Kahoʻolawe was used as a training ground and bombing target by the US armed forces. Thousands of soldiers, sailors, and airmen trained on Kahoʻolawe for the brutal assaults on islands such as the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, and New Guinea in the Western Pacific. During the Korean War, the War in Vietnam and throughout the entire Cold War period, pilots practiced hitting mock-up airfields, military camps, radar installations, and missile sites on Kahoʻolawe.
In 1963, the three nuclear super powers of the world—the United States, the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom—signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty that banned all atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. The ban was enforced to address the rising public anxiety over the magnitude of nuclear tests and the risk of nuclear fallout. The ban came at a time when the US Navy still had a thing or two to learn about nuclear bombs, especially how the Navy’s ships fared in the presence of a blast. Because they couldn’t detonate nuclear bombs above the ground, the Navy turned to regular explosives but in enormous quantities to simulate a nuclear bomb.
A series of three tests were conducted at Kahoʻolawe under Operation Sailor Hat. Several decommissioned ships were anchored offshore a few hundred meters from the coastline, and a large dome of TNT blocks—34 feet across and 17 feet high—containing 500 tons worth of explosives was detonated.
After the first test, the large crater the explosion gouged into the bedrock was filled with sand to minimize secondary damage caused by rock ejecta. Over this crater another of dome of TNT blocks were built for the second test. This was repeated for the third test.
500 tons of TNT awaiting detonation at Operation Sailor Hat.
Each of the three massive blasts could be seen for miles, by land, air and sea. Their shockwaves were so powerful that antennas, radars and other structures on the deck of the ships were ripped apart. A life size mannequin placed on the deck facing the blast was violently thrown over. Despite the topside damage, the 169-man navy crew and 60 scientific personnel who remained below deck experienced only a jolt equivalent to an Iowa-class battleship firing a nine gun 16-inch salvo. The Navy was impressed with how well the blast was resisted by their ships. Only some minor design improvements were needed to make the ships more robust.
Meanwhile on Kahoʻolawe, the crater left by the third blast remained unfilled and slowly as the ecosystem healed, a small anchialine or landlocked pond formed with an underground connection to the ocean. The “Sailor's Hat” crater is now home to two endemic species of shrimps.
For the last three decades, the state of Hawaii along with the US Navy has been engaged in a cleanup effort on the island trying to remove unexploded ordnances and revert the damages caused by nearly fifty years of munitions testing. Over $400 million have been poured into the effort, yet the job is far from over. A quarter of the island is still off-limits.